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currency: Canadian Dollar (CAD)
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Canada profile
second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route;
approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border;
Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water;
Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined
Canada history
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
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Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Canada
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Canada's capital city is Ottawa
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Canada Constitution:

made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions;

the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
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Canada population growth rate: 0.77%
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Canada highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
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Canada lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
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About 4% of Canada's land is arable.
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Mackenzie River is the Longest River in Canada
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Canada birth rate is 10 births/1,000 population
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Canada infant mortality rate is 5 deaths/1,000 live births
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Canada fertility rate is 1.59 children born/woman
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Canada climate:

varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
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Top 10 cities of Canada with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Toronto: 4,263,000
2. Montréal: 3.327,000
3. Vancouver: 1,832,000
4. Ottawa: 1,010,000
5. Edmonton: 863.000
6. Calgary: 822,000
7. Quebéc: 672,000
8. Winnipeg: 667,000
9. Hamilton: 624,000
10. London: 399,000
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Canada ethnic groups:

British Isles origin - 28%
French origin - 23%
other European - 15%
Amerindian - 2%
other, mostly Asian, African, Arab - 6%
mixed background - 26%
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Canada Exports:

motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
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Canada Imports:

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
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bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and serve until 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a maximum of four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
10 provinces

1. Alberta
2. British Columbia
3. Manitoba
4. New Brunswick
5. Newfoundland and Labrador
6. Nova Scotia
7. Ontario
8. Prince Edward Island
9. Quebec
10. Saskatchewan

and 3 territories

1. Northwest Territories
2. Nunavut
3. Yukon
Political parties and leaders:
Bloc Quebecois - Daniel PAILLE

Conservative Party of Canada - Stephen HARPER

Green Party - Elizabeth MAY

Liberal Party - Robert RAE (interim)

New Democratic Party (NDP) [Thomas MULCAIR]